Finally, cyclic compounds 14 h–l were designed to reduce the flexibility of the inhibitor. Mol. While the methyl substituent at this stereo center is oriented toward a rather large sub‐pocket, larger hydrophobic substituents come along with a lower inhibitory potency ((8) and previously reported inhibitors21). Lumateperone acts as an antagonist of 5-HT 2A receptor and antagonizes several dopamine receptor subtypes (D 1, D 2, and D 4). Together, these results lead us to the suggestion that these classes of inhibitors can be used in the development of broad‐spectrum PLpro‐inhibitors acting against this protease in related betacoronaviruses and, potentially, even other coronaviruses.

Benzamides or thioxanthenes were tested as potential antagonists of the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by 10−4 M dopamine in intact rabbit retinae in vitro in the presence of 5 to 7 mM theophylline. The crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 5 : 1). Purity (LC, 254 nm): 98.3 %. It could be shown that compounds that are inactive against SARS‐CoV PLpro did also not show inhibitory activity against SARS‐CoV‐2 PLpro.

The potency of the compounds in these behavioural experiments ranked in the order : clebopride > metoclopramide > sulpiride > tigan and DP. Rf=0.18 (CH/EtOAc 1 : 1), 1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ=1.73 (d, J=6.88 Hz, 3H), 2.37 (s, 3H), 6.07 (q, J=6.88 Hz, 1H), 7.28–7.44 (m, 3H), 7.45–7.62 (m, 3H), 7.65 (d, J=7.15 Hz, 1H), 7.82 (d, J=8.28 Hz, 1H), 7.91 (d, J=7.65 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J=8.41 Hz, 1H) ppm. A., Greengard, P.: Cyclic nucleotides and their possible relevance to disorders of nervous system function. 2‐Methyl‐4‐[(methylsulfonyl)amino]‐N‐[(1R)‐1‐naphth‐1‐ylethyl]benzamide (2 s): This compound was synthesized according to a modified general procedure Ab with (8 eq.) The authors declare no conflict of interest.

mp: 247 °C. mp: 166 °C. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A representative subset of both compound classes (benzamides and isoindolines) was tested for antiviral activity in cell culture using SARS‐CoV‐2‐infected (or mock‐infected) Vero E6 cells.

Purity (LC, 280 nm): 98.5 %. Purity (LC, 280 nm):>99 %. 2‐Bromo‐N‐[(1R)‐1‐naphth‐1‐ylethyl]benzamide (2 g): This compound was synthesized according to the general procedure C. 120 mg, 0.34 mmol, yield: 55 %. MS (ESI): m/z calcd for C21H19NO [M+H]+302.16, found 302.2. Reagents and conditions: a) 1. mp: 195 °C. The crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography (petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 4 : 1). [c] Compounds could only be obtained with a purity of 90–95 %.

Purity (LC, 280 nm):>99 %. was added dropwise. 13C NMR (100 MHz, MeOD) δ=19.2, 20.4, 48.2, 54.5, 123.1, 125.3, 126.8, 127.8, 128.0, 128.8, 130.6, 130.9, 131.1, 131.4, 131.8, 132.3, 132.5, 134.2, 135.7, 139.0 ppm.

After incubation for 1 h at 33 °C, the virus inoculum was replaced with fresh cell culture medium containing the test compound at the indicated concentration. 2‐[(1R)‐1‐Naphth‐1‐ylethyl]‐2,3‐dihydro‐1H‐isoindol‐5‐amine (14 k): This compound was synthesized according to the general procedure F. 76 mg, 0.26 mmol, yield: 86 % as bright brown solid. 3‐Methyl‐N‐[(1R)‐1‐naphth‐1‐ylethyl]thiophene‐2‐carboxamide (2 n): To a solution of 3‐methylthiophene‐2‐carboxylic acid (88.8 mg, 0.625 mmol, 1 eq.) Therefore, in the SARS‐CoV‐2 AMC‐based assay, higher inhibitor concentrations are necessary to achieve the same effects.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ=1.85 (d, J=6.78 Hz, 3H), 6.01 (d, J=7.65 Hz, 1H), 6.08–6.20 (m, 1H), 7.05 (ddd, J=8.03, 6.34, 2.82 Hz, 1H), 7.28–7.35 (m, 2H), 7.48 (dd, J=8.03, 7.40 Hz, 1H), 7.50–7.57 (m, 1H), 7.58–7.63 (m, 2H), 7.80–7.91 (m, 3H), 8.28 (d, J=8.41 Hz, 1H) ppm. Reagents and conditions: X=OH a) appropriate solvent, HOBt‐hydrate, coupling reagent, (R)‐naphthylethylamine (NEA). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO‐d6) δ=4.54–4.78 (m, 4H), 5.14 (d, J=5.52 Hz, 2H), 7.26–7.45 (m, 4H), 7.56–7.73 (m, 3H), 7.99–8.13 (m, 3H), 8.43 (d, J=8.28 Hz, 1H), 11.88 (s, 1H) ppm. was added dropwise to a solution of TEA (1.5 mL, 1.1 g, 11 mmol, 2 eq.) Such materials are peer reviewed and may be re‐organized for online delivery, but are not copy‐edited or typeset. Biochem. (R)‐N‐(1‐(naphthalen‐1‐yl)ethyl)‐2,2‐diphenylacetamide (2 m): This compound was synthesized according to the general procedure Aa/Ab. Rf=0.59 (CH/EtOAc 3 : 1). Purity (LC, 300 nm): 93.0 %. was added dropwise. Purity (LC, 254 nm): 98 %. Based on the synthesized derivatives, we determined SAR that can aid the future development of high‐affinity ligands. Toxicol. Purity (LC, 254 nm): 97.5 %. MS (ESI): m/z calcd for C19H23NO [M+H]+282.19, found 282.2. H‐bond donor substituents as ‐OH (14 l) and ‐NH2 (14 k) in the 5‐position caused only a slight reduction in affinity and showed similar inhibitory activities as 14 h. Similar to the benzamide series above, inversion of the stereo center of the ethylnaphthylamine abolished activity (14 i). Purity (LC, 280 nm): 97.9 %. The polar substituents are oriented toward the solvent and additional polar interactions with the protease can be formed via H‐bonds with the Leu163 backbone oxygen (2 o–q) and the Lys158 side‐chain (2 o, 2 q, 2 s) (Figure 1C). (U.S.A.) 69, 2145–2149 (1972), Lees, M. B., Paxman, S.: Modification of the Lowry procedure for the analysis of proteolipid protein. Those different amino acids, T275/K274 and V301/I300 (labeled as SARS‐CoV/SARS‐CoV‐2 PLpro) orient their side‐chains away from the binding site not influencing direct protein‐ligand interactions. Rf=0.45 (CH/EtOAc 3 : 1). In another set of compounds, the effect of ortho substituents of the benzamide moiety was investigated (Table 1, 2 c–i).



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