That being is man, or, as Heideg-gerput it, the humanreality.T411atdo we Iueanhere by "existence precedes essence"? determinate situation that limits or conditions choice.

In fact, in 1945, the influence of Sartre's thought rvould contrihuce to the making, and even the mythologizing, of the Saint Gerrnain ties Pi-& neighbol-hood, vr~ith its chul-ch tower, its square, and its cafis - of which Sartre rapidly hecame the intellectual embodiment.

T h e fundamental meaning of existelitialis~nresides in the latter. nineteenth centlily, with which he never ceased to struggle. condemned to be free.. . Isn't lie alrcady connecting with ern allcl the new, interest in the cu1ultlir.e of the otller, the them about the culttire of i ~ ~ t e l ~ c i e l ~ e ~the ~ c universality le~ic~, settliiig of scores with colonial France and imperialist Anerica, as well ss his iritcrest in the Flauhertian France of the of the individual project, the duty to act, the critical stanceSartre, the eternal rebellious teeniiger, their contemporay? The book was published in multiple languages including French, consists of 165 pages and is available in Paperback format.

'Kis lecture beca~lieone of the mythical moments clithe postwar era, the iirst media event of its time, giving rise to the "Sartre phenomenon."

Whatever doctrine we may be considering, say Descartes's or Leihniz's, we always agree that the will more or less follows understanding, or at the very least accompanies it, so that when God creates he knows exactly what he is creating. Prior to that projection of the self, notliing exists, not even in divine intelligence, ant1 man shall attain existence only when he is what he projects himself to be -not what he would like to be. These limitations are neither subjective nor objective; rather they have an objective as well as a subjective dimension: objective, because they affect everyone and are evident everywhere; subjective because the57 are expe~ienccdand are meaningless if man does not experience them -that is to say, if man does not freely determine himself and his existence in relation to them. Tlms the concept of man, in the nind of God, is comparable to the concept of the paper knife in the mind of the manufacnirer: God produces ~ n a nfollowing certain techniques and a coilception, just as the craftsman, following a definition and a technique, produces a paper knife. Change of scenery. ("Existentialism Is a H~[manism" was immortalized a few ~nonthslater in Boris Vian's novel I'rzlth on the Da-ydre(tmrw, which descrilres "Jean-Sol … But when an existentialist describes a coward, he says that the coward is responsible for his own cowardice. We are left alone and without excuse. Given sufic.ient information, one can always find a way to understand an idiot, a child, a person froin a so-called primitive culture, or a foreigner. It recalls the spectator of all time and of all h other words, there is no determinism-man is free, man is freedom. OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

In Kant's works, this universality extends so far as to encompass forest dwellers -man in a state of nature - and the bourgeois, meaning that they all possess the sanie basic qualities. In this regard, too, we are exceedingly ~nisunderstood. His older brother had been lulled in the Gennan offensive of 1940,and this young man, with primitive but noble feelings, wanted to avenge him.

Let's give him the opporn~llnityto address this new audience, who will surely then go on to discover Nailsea, Tire Itl'or~h,The 62611 and Other Stones, The Fiimih Idiot, 7Be Co>zilev~nedof Altona, Thr Rods t o Freedmuz, and so many more of his writings. flow can we account for all of Sartre?

We have now, I think,dispensed with a numf~erof charges brought against existentialism. Rut we credit such possibilities only to the strict extent that our action encompasses tlie~n.Fro111 the moment that tlie possibilities I arn oonsitlering cease to he rigorously engaged by my action, I must no longer take interest in them, for no God or greater design can bend the world and its possil~ilitiesto my will. Yet, what could bemore disillusioning than such sayings as "Charity begins at l~wne,"or even "Appoint a rogue and he'll do you datnage, knock him down and he'll do you l~on~age." "they would shrug their shoulders and reply, "But everyone does not act that way."


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