Sadauskas E, Wallin H, Stoltenberg M, Vogel U, Doering P, Larsen A. et al. Kim SW, Jung JH, Lamsal K, Kim YS, Min JS, Lee YS. Mol Neurobiol. These extracts from different plant parts contain organic components such as enzymes, alcohols, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinines, oils, terpenoids and phenolic compounds [126, 127].  In this study, silver nanoparticles synthesised by chemical and biological means were tested for antimicrobial activity taking Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria-like S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well-diffusion method (Figure 3). New J Chem. J. Mol. Roles of matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression and their pharmacological targeting. 2010;118:407-413, 351. 2016;16:242, 200. Yang T, Yao Q, Cao F, Liu Q, Liu B, Wang XH. Add 30 mL of 0.002M sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to an Erlenmeyer flask. Besides, AgNPs can promote wound healing by regulating the production of cytokines or proteins, such as inflammatory cytokines, VEGF and MMPs [163, 291]. Anticancer Potential of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Extract of Nepeta deflersiana against Human Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLA). [Full text] It was highlighted that AgNPs were effective in reducing insulin resistance and DNA damage. Agnihotri S, Mukherji S, Mukherji S. Size-controlled silver nanoparticles synthesized over the range 5-100 nm using the same protocol and their antibacterial efficacy. AgNPs improved the electrical conductivity and biocompatibility of nanocomposites and made them more suitable for enzyme activity and stability. In the literature, various bacterial strains such as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli  and Bacillus licheniformis  were used effectively for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Ojha et al. Antiangiogenic properties of silver nanoparticles. The role of chorion on toxicity of silver nanoparticles in the embryonic zebrafish assay.
However, excessive ROS can produce oxidative stress that reduces the activity of biological macromolecules and damages subcellular organelles and DNA structures [252, 253]. AMB Express. Maglie et al. More importantly, they confirmed that AgNPs could increase the level of phosphorylated JNK, a kind of kinase involved in mediating apoptosis. Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films of agar and silver nanoparticles: laser ablation method. ; Jun, B.-H. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Application for Nanomedicine. In the development and progression of tumors, many signaling pathways are involved in controlling cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis and viability, and can participate in more complex signaling networks that contribute to tumor progression, such as tumor microenvironment (TME), angiogenesis and inflammation . 2013;394:113-123, 326.  and various plant pathogenic fungi in size- and dose-dependent manners . 2019-RC-HL-024), the Science and Technology Plan Project of Hunan Province (Grant Nos. Compared with physical or chemical methods, biological method can be carried out at normal temperature and pressure and avoid the use of toxic or hazardous additives. Rather than Gram-positive bacteria, AgNPs show a stronger effect on the Gram-negative ones. Laser Technology and its Applications: IntechOpen, 2nd ed. Therefore, MMPs are considered as potential targets for cancer therapy . Salazar-García S, Silva-Ramírez AS, Ramirez-Lee MA, Rosas-Hernandez H, Rangel-López E, Castillo CG. They found that although the load of AgNPs could significantly increase the immune responses by arising neutralizing antibody against rabies virus in mice, the lowest concentration of virus-loaded AgNPs decreased cell viability. Therefore, it is necessary to modify AgNPs in order to improve the sensitivity of re-creating platforms. Ag0 transformed into Ag+, Ag-O-, and Ag-S- species, which might induce the cellular biochemical changes. 2010;4:319-330, 219. While microorganisms such as bacteria , algae , yeast , and fungi  are continued to be examined so far for the intra and extracellular synthesis of metal nanoparticles, the use of parts of the whole plant in analogous with nanoparticles synthesis methodologies is an exciting possibility which is newly explored. Baker JW, Leidy KL, Smith KM, Okeke S. Argyria associated with use of systemic colloidal silver. 2017;387:95-105, 252. Lekki J, Stachura Z, Dąbroś W, Stachura J, Menzel F, Reinert T. et al. Adv Tech Biol Med. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10844, 140. Soucacos PN, Johnson EO, Babis G. An update on recent advances in bone regeneration.
Gurunathan S, Park JH, Han JW, Kim JH. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Comparative life cycle assessment of silver nanoparticle synthesis routes. Silver nitrate, trisodium citrate merck (Germany), malt extract was procured from Himedia (India). For example, AgNPs can bind to the glycoprotein knobs and inhibit the reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1 and interact with the virus in size- and dose-dependent manner [169, 185]. The synthesis procedure shown here was adapted by Steve Ng and Chris Johnson from a procedure developed by S.D. Furthermore, they recognized that metallothionein (MT) expression induced by AgNPs might be regarded as one of the possible protective mechanisms of lung. Naik AN, Patra S, Sen D, Goswami A. The addition of a few drops of 1.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution causes the suspension to turn darker yellow, then gray as the nanoparticles aggregate. Step 7. Theranostics. 2017;1:000360, 355. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. 2005:5059-5061, 170. The reducing agents in chemical reduction method are chemical solutions such as polyol, N2H4, NaBH4, sodium citrate and N,N-dimethyformamide; in the case of biological methods, collection of enzymes, predominantly, nitrate reductase plays such a role. Nanoparticles of noble metals, especially the silver nanoparticles, have been widely used in different fields of science. Despite these therapeutic benefits, their biological safety problems such as potential toxicity on cells, tissue, and organs should be paid enough attention.
Finally, we conclude the current challenges and point out the future development direction of AgNPs. Zielinska E, Zauszkiewicz-Pawlak A, Wojcik M, Inkielewicz-Stepniak I. Wang L, Xu H, Gu L, Han T, Wang S, Meng F. Bioinspired synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using purple sweet potato root extract. AgNPs are mainly used for antimicrobial and anticancer therapy, and also applied in the promotion of wound repair and bone healing, or as the vaccine adjuvant, anti-diabetic agent and biosensors.
Sen Gupta A.
Fungal mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, characterization and antimicrobial activity. Hong Kong: Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles.
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